Ilm-e-Hadees aur Hadees ki Kisme

Sahih hadees kya hai hasan hadith kya hai zaeef hadith kise kehte hai ?

۞ Bismillah-Hirrahman-Nirrahim ۞

• Hadees ka ilm sahih aur khalis niyyat ke sath sirf Allah Ta’ala ki raza ke liye haasil kare.

• Hadees ka ilm naam kamaane aur duniya ke maqsado ke liye hargiz haasil naa kare warna kuch
faydah na hoga.

• Allah Ta’ala se dua karte rahe ki iss mubarak ilm ke haasil hone me Allah Ta’ala ki taufeeq haasil rahe, halaat durust rahe, koi rukaawat aur mushkil pesh na aaye aur Allah Rabbul Izzat hadees ke samajhne
me khusoosi madad farmata rahe aur khatima imaan ke sath ho.

• Rozaana kuch na kuch waqt (ya jitna ziyadah mumkin ho) hadees ka ilm haasil karne ke liye zaroor kharch kare, behtar yeh hai ki kisi mu’atabar aur parhezgar ustadh ki shagirdi bhi ikhtiyaar kare.

• Ustadh ki bahut ziyadah izzat kare aur jo hadees padhe ya sune uss par amal karne ki koshish bhi kare.

• Hadees ke ilm ko ziyadah se ziyadah failaye aur jo baat maaloom na ho waha apni raay se hargiz na bataye, balki yeh kahe ki mai nahi jaanta.

• Ilm ke haasil karne me sharm na kare, jab bhi koi baat samajh me na aye toh apne ustadh ya kisi aur aalim se puch le aur har hadees achhi tarha samajhe.

Hadees ka ilm haasil karne mein hadees ki mashoor wa mu’atabar kitaabe ‘Bukhari’ aur ‘Muslim’ ko tarjih de.


Hadees ki Istalaahe

(Hadees ki Paribhasha)

• Qauli Hadees: Nabie Karim صلى الله عليه وسلم kaa farmaan.

• Fayli Hadees: Nabie Karim صلى الله عليه وسلم kaa amal.

• Taqreeri Hadees: Nabie Karim صلى الله عليه وسلم ki ijaazat.

Taqreeri Hadees usse kehte hai ki Aap صلى الله عليه وسلم ki maujoodgi me koi kaam kiya gaya ho, yaa koi baat kahi gayi ho aur aap uss par khaamosh rahe ho yaa manaa na kiya ho.

• Aur aap صلى الله عليه وسلم ki sifaat (huliya, akhlaaq, qirdaar) ‘sifati hadees’ kehlaati hai.


Hadees ki Kisme

(Sankshiptata Ke Saath)

1. Sahih :

Jiske tamaam raawi (riwaayat karne wale) mu’atabar, parhezgaar aur kaabile aitibaar yaaddaasht ke maalik ho aur sanad muttasil ho. (Muttasil ke maayne ‘lagataar’ ke hai, yaani sanad shuru se akhir taq mili hui ho, beech se koi raawi gaayab na ho.

2. Hasan:

Jiske raawi sahi hadees ke raawi ke muqaabale me haafize (yaaddaasht) me toh kam ho, baki sharte (mu’atabar, parhezgaar aur sanad muttasil hone me ) sahi hadees waali maujood ho.

3. Marfoo’ :

Jiss hadees me kisi Sahabi r.a ne Nabi Karim صلى الله عليه وسلم ka naam le kar hadees bayaan ki ho, waha Marfoo’ kehlaati hai.

4. Mawqoof:

Jis hadees me kisi Sahabiؓ ne Nabie Karim صلى الله عليه وسلم ka naam liye baghair hadees bayaan ki ho yaa apne khayaal ka izhaar kiya ho waha Mawqoof kehlaati hai.

5. Aahaad:

Jis hadees ke raawi taadaad me mutawaatir hadeeso ke raawiyo se kam ho waha Aahaad kehlaati hai, Aahaad ki teen kisme hai –

1. Mashoor: Jis hadees ke raawi har zamaane mein do se ziyadah rahe ho.
2. Azeez: Jiske raawi har zamaane me kumse kum do rahe ho.
3. Ghareeb: Jis hadees ka raawi har zamaane me kumse kum ek raha ho, aur har raawi mu’atabar, parhezgaar, kaabile aitibaar yaaddaasht ka maalik raha ho aur sanad muttasil ho.

6. Mutawaatir:

Jis hadees ke raawi har zamaane me itne ho jinka jhoot par iqatthe hona mumkin na ho.

7. Maqbool :

Jis hadees ke raawiyo ki diyaanat (imaandaari) aur sacchaai tasleem ho waha hadees Maqbool kehlati hai.

8. Ghair Maqbool:

Jis hadees ke raawiyo ki diyaanat aur sacchaai sandighda (ghair yaqeeni) ho waha Ghair Maqbool kehlati hai.

9. Za’eef:

Jis hadees me na toh sahih hadees ki sharte mawjood ho aur na hi hasan ki. Yaani jis hadees ke raawiyo me koi raawi kam feham, kamzor hafize wala ho yaa sanad me ek yaa ziyadah raawi chooth gaye ho.

10. Mawzu (Mangadhat) :

Jis hadees ka (koi ek bhi) raawi kazzaab (jhootha) ho. ‘Kazzab’ uss raawi ko kehte hai jis se hadees paak me jhooth bolna saabit ho chuka ho.


Hadees ki Kitaabo ki Istelaahe

Sihah e Sitta: Hadees ki 6 (mashoor) kitaabe: Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, Tirmizi, Nasai aur Ibn Majha ko ‘Sahih Sitta’ kaha jaataa hai.

Jaame’: Jis hadees me Islam se mutalliq tamaam mabaahis, aqeede, ahkaam, tafseer, fitan (fitno ka bayaan), aadaabe jannat, dozakh vagayrah ke halaat mawjood ho waha Jaame’ kehlaati hai. Maslan ‘Jaame’ as Sahih Bukhari’, ‘Jaame’ Tirmizi’.

Sunan: Jis kitaab me sirf ahkaamaat ke mutalliq hadeese jama ki gayi ho waha ‘Sunan’ kehlati hai, Maslan ‘Sunan Abi Dawood’, ‘Sunan Nasai’.

Musnad: Jis kitaab me har Sahabiؓ ki hadeese tartibwar ikatthi kar di gayi ho woh ‘Musnad’ kehlaati hai, Maslan ‘Musnad Ahmed’.

Mustakhraj: Jis kitaab me ek kitaab ki hadeese kisi doosri sanad se riwayat ki jaye wo ‘Mustakhraj’ kehlaati hai, Maslan ‘Mustakhrajul Ismail al Al Bukhari.

Mustadraq: Jis kitaab me ek muhaddith ki qaayam ki hui sharto ke mutaabiq woh hadeese jama ki jaye jo uss muhaddith ne apni kitaab me darj na ki ho, waha ‘Mustadraq’ kehlaati hai, Maslan ‘Mustadraq
Hakeem’.

Bukhari Shareef me saari hadeese sahi hai aur aaj tak tamaam muhadditheen ka iss par ittefaaq (ek rai) hai.

Allah Taala ka farmaan hai:

“Aye momino! agar tumhe koi faasiq (badkaar wa ghair mu’atabar aadmi) khabar de toh tum uski achhi tarah tehqeeq kar liya karo.”

Quran 49:6

Rasoolullah صلى الله عليه وسلم ka farmaan hai:
۞ Hadees: Allah Ta’ala uss shakhs ko taro taaza rakhe (yaani khush haal rakhe aur izzat wa sammaan inaayat farmaye) jisne mujhse koi hadees suni fir usko aage pohoncha diya jaisa ki suna tha. (Tirmizi)

۞ Hadees: Jab aadmi mar jaata hai uske amal ka sawaab rook jaata hai, magar teen amalo ka sawaab baaki (aur jaari) rehta hai Sadaqae jaariya, wah ilm jisse nafaa haasil kiya jaye, aur nek aulaad jo uske liye dua kare. (Muslim)

۞ Hadees: Jo shakhs ilm haasil karne ke liye kisi raaste par chala, Allah taala uske liye jannat ka raasta aasaan karega. (Muslim)

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22 Rajab ki Fatiha HadeesCategories of HadithHadees Hindi maiHadees ka TarufList of hadith collectionsTypes of Hadith
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