Zakat-ul-Fitr ke Ahkaam

Zakat-ul-Fitr Ke Ahkaam
Quran wa Sunnat ki Roshni mein

Sadqat ul Fitr ki Farziyyat

Jis saal Ramadhan ka Roza farz huwa usi saal
sadqat ul fitr bhi farz howa yaani 2 hijri mein. Is
ki farziyyat Quran o Hadees aur Ijma e Ummat
se saabit hai.

Quran se Daleel:

۞ Beshak us ne falah paa li jo paak ho gaya. (Surah Al-A’la 87:14)

Sunnat se Daleel:

۞ Hadees: Abdullah bin Umar (RA) se riwayat hai ki
Allah ke Rasool ﷺ ne “Ramadhan mein
Sadqat ul fitr ko musalmanon mein se har nafs
par farz kar diya hai.” (Sahih Muslim: 984)

Imam Ibn e Munzir Rahimahullah ne is ki
farziyyat par Ijma naqal kiya hai.
(Al-Ijmaa’ (Ibn e Munzir): Page No: 55)

Sadqat ul Fitr/ Zakat ul Fitr ko Zakat ul Badan
aur Zakat un Nafs bhi kaha jaata hai. Aam urdu
bol chaal mein yeh Fitra ya Fitrana ke naam se jaana jata hai.

Fitrane ki Hikmat

Do hikmatein to ek Hadees mein mazkoor hain:

Nabi (ﷺ) ne Sadqat ul Fitr Rozedaar ko lagw aur behooda
baaton se paak karne ke liye aur miskeenon ke
khaane ke liye farz kiya hai.
(Abu Dawood: 1609 and Ibn e Majah: 1827)

♲ Pehli hikmat ♲
Rozedaar ki paaki: Roze ki halat mein Rozedaar
se hone waali ghalatiyon se paak hone ke liye
Fitrana ada kiya jaata hai.

♲ Doosri hikmat ♲
Miskeenon ka khaana: Eid ke din jahan maldaar
log khushi manayen wahein apni khushi mein
shaamil karne ke liye un ke zimme ghareebon
aur miskeenon ko Fitranah ada karna hai taaki
woh bhi musalmanon ki Eid ki khushi mein
barabar ke shareek ho saken.

♲ Teesri hikmat ♲
Fitrane mein miskeenon ke saath ulfat o
muhabbat ke izhaar ke siwa, apne badan ka
sadqa bhi hai kiunki Allah Taala ne ab tak apni
taufeeq se zinda rakha. Aur Allah ki un
ne’maton ka shukriya bhi jo Ramadhan ul
Mubarak mein (Roza, Qiyam, Aitekaf, Lailat ul
Qadr waghera ki shakl mein) milte hain.

Fitrane ki Shartein

Is ki teen shartein hain;
➊ Fitrane ke liye islam shart hai, is liye kafir par Fitrana nahi.

➋ Istita’at: Fitrana ke liye nisaab ka maalik
hona shart nahi balki agar kisi ke paas Eid ki
raat aur us din apne aur apne ahl o ayaal par
kharch karne se ziyadah khuraak ho to use
miskeenon ko sadqa kare.

➌ Teesri shart Fitrane ka wajibi waqt hona hai
jo Eid ka chaand niklne se Eid ki namaz ke waqt
tak hai.

Kin ki taraf se fitrana ada kiya jayega?

Is silsile mein Nabi Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam
ki Hadees hai:

Tarjumah: Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) se riwayat hai ki
Allah ke Rasool (ﷺ) ne Ramadhan mein
musalmaanon mein se har shakhs par azaad ya
gulaam, mard ho ya aurat, choota ho ya bada
khajooron ka ek saa’ ya jaw (barley) ka ek saa’
Sadqat ul Fitr muqarrar farmaya. (Sahih Muslim: 984)

➤ Is liye har musalman chaahe woh chota ho ya
bada, azad ho ya ghulam, mard ho ya aurat un ki
taraf se Fitra nikalna un ke sarparast ke zimme
wajib hai Yateem aur majnu ke paas maal ho to un ki
taraf se bhi Fitra nikala jaaye.

➤ Pait mein maujood bachche ki taraf se
Fitrana wajib nahi hai magar koyi istihbaab ke
taur par dena chaahe to de sakta hai.

➤ Mayyit ki taraf se Fitrana nahi hai. Haan agar
mayyit ne waqt e wujoob (Eid ka chaand niklne
se Eid ki namaz tak) ko pa liya to us ki taraf se
Fitrana ada kiya jaayega.

➤ Naukar ya Naukraani ka Fitrana khud unke
zimme hai, agar us ka maalik ada kar de to ada
ho jaayega.

Fitrane mein kya diya jaaye?

Jis country mein jo cheez ghiza (khaane) ke taur
par istemaal ki jaati hai use Fitrana ke taur par
de sakte hain. Is se mutalliq Nabi (ﷺ) ka farmaan hai:

۞ Hadees: Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) se riwayat hai ki
Allah ke Rasool (ﷺ) ne Ramadhan mein
musalmaanon mein se har shakhs par azaad ya
gulaam, mard ho ya aurat, choota ho ya bada
khajooron ka ek saa’ ya jaw (barley) ka ek saa’
Sadqat ul Fitr muqarrar farmaya.
(Sahih Muslim: 984)

Nabi ﷺ ke zamaane mein
jaw (barley), khajoor, munqqa aur paneer
khaane ke taur par istemaal hota tha. Hamaare
yahan normally chawal, ghehon, chana, jaw,
baajra, jawar waghera khaane ki cheezein hain
lehaza hum un mein se Fitrana nikalenge.

Saa’ ki miqdaar:

Fitrane ki miqdaar “ek saa” hai. Ek saa’
chaar mudd ka hota hai. Gram ke hisaab se saa ki
ta’een mein kaafi ikhtilaaf hai.

Shaikh Ibn e Uthaimeen ne 2kilo 40gram batlaya hai. Kuch
ne 2kilo 100gram, kuch ne taqreeban dhai kilo
(2.5kg), kuch ne 2kilo 175gram, kuch ne 2kilo
751gram kaha hai. Shaikh Ibn e Baaz ne 3kilo
batlaya hai. Yahi Saudi Fatwa Committee Lajna
Daima ka fatwa hai.

Ziyadah tar aqwaal dhai kilo (2.5kg) ke aas
paas hain. Agar dhai kilo ke hisaab se nikaal
diya jaaye to ziyadah munasib hai. Is mein
fuqaraa aur masakeen ka faida bhi hai aur agar
koi 3kilo ke hisaab se nikalta hai to is mein bhi
koi harj nahi.

Yahan ek aur masla jaan lena chaahiye ke
ek hi jins se ek saa’ nikalna behtar hai na ke
aadha ek jins se aur aadha ek jins se.

Abu Dawood aur Nasai waghera mein nisf saa’
ka bhi zikr hai magar woh riwayat sahih nahi
hai. Is silsile mein kuch Aasaar bhi mlite hain.
Imam Abu Hanifah, Shaikh ul Islam Ibn e
Taimiyah, Allama Ibn e Qayyim, Allama Albani
aur Ubaidullah Mubarakpoori Rahimahumullah
ka mauqif hai ke nisf saa’ bhi kifayat karega.

Fitrane ka Masraf (Fitrana kinko diya jaaye)

Fitrane ka Masraf Nabi (ﷺ) ne bata diya hai:

۞ Hadees: Nabi Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam ne
Sadqat ul Fitr Rozedaar ko lagw aur behooda
baaton se paak karne ke liye aur miskeenon ke
khaane ke liye farz kiya hai.
(Abu Dawood: 1609 and Ibn e Majah: 1827)

Allama Albani Rahimahullah ne is Hadees
ko “Sahih ul Jami’: 3570” mein sahih kaha hai.
Yeh Hadees batati hai ke Fitrana ka masraf
fuqaraa or masakeen hain. Kuch ulama ne kaha
Zakat ke 8 Masaarif mein Fitrana sarf kar sakte
hain (means jin logon ko zakat di jaati hai unko
Fitrana de sakte hain) magar yeh baat upar zikr
ki gayi Hadees ke khilaaf hai.

➤ Shaikh ul Islam Ibn e Taimiyah
Rahimahullah ne Fitrane ko Faqeeron or
Miskeenon ke saath khaas kiya hai aur daleel se
qawi-tar isi ko qarar diya hai.
(Majmoo’ ul Fatawa: 25/71)

➤ Shaikh Ibn e Baaz ne kaha ke Fitrane ka
masraf Fuqaraa or Masaakeen hain kiunki Ibn e
Abbas Radhiallahu Anhuma se saabit hai:

۞ Hadees: Nabi (ﷺ) ne Sadqat ul Fitr
Rozedaar ko lagw aur behooda
baaton se paak karne ke liye aur miskeenon ke
khaane ke liye farz kiya hai.
Abu Dawood: 1609 and Ibn e Majah: 1827
(Majmoo’ ul Fatawa: 14/204)

Lehaaza Fitraana Faqeeron or Miskeenon ke
alawah Masjidon aur Madarson waghera par
kharch karna sunnat ki mukhalifat hai.
Agar apni jagah par Faqeeron or Miskeenon ko
na paaye to doosri jagah Fitrana bhej de.

Fitrana dene ka waqt

Fitrane ka do waqt hai –

Ek waqt Wujoob ka aur ek waqt jawaaz ka.

♲ Wujoob ka waqt ♲
Eid ka chaand nazar aane se Eid ki namaz tak
hai. Is darmiyan kisi waqt mustahiq ko Fitrana
de de.

♲ Jawaaz ka waqt ♲
Eid se ek do din pehle Fitrana dena jaaiz hai.
Bukhari aur Muslim mein Ibn e Umar
Radhiallahu Anhuma se marwi hai:

۞ Hadees: Sahaba e Kiraam Radhiallahu
Anhum Eid se ek ya do din pehle Fitrana ada
karte the. (Sahih Bukhari: 1511)

Afzal waqt Eid ki namaz ke liye niklane se
pehle ada karna hai kiunki Hadees mein hai:

۞ Hadees: Nabi (ﷺ) ne Eid ki namaz ke liye
nikalne se pehle logon ko Fitrana ada karne ka hukm diya.
(Sahih Bukhari: 1503 and Sahih Muslim: 986)

➤ Eid ki namaz ke baad Fitra dene se ada nahi
hoga woh sirf aam sadqa shumaar hoga lekin
agar kisi ke saath bhool ho gayi ya kisi shar’ee
uzr ki bunyaad par late ho gayi to Allah taala
aise bandon se darguzar (mu’aaf) karta hai.

Fitrana dene ki jagah

Is mein asal yahi hai ke jo jis jagah rehta hai
wahein Fitra ada kare lekin agar wahan Fuqaraa
or Masaakeen maujood na hon to Fitra doosri
jagah bhej de. Isi tarah agar kisi doosri jagah
bhejne ki sakht zaroorat ho to ek jagah se doosri
jagah muntaqil karne mein koi harj nahi.

Fitrane mein raqam dena kaisa?

Yeh ek ahem masla hai jiske Jaaiz aur Na Jaaiz hone mein
ikhtilaaf hai. Ahadees ki roshni mein yeh masla wazeh hai,

Nabi (ﷺ) ne Fitrane ko miskeenon ki ghiza (means unka khaana)
qarar diya hai or ghiza khayi jaane waali cheez hai, na ke raqam.

Is liye Rasool (ﷺ) ke farmaan par chalte huwe galle se hi
Fitra ada karna behtar or afzal hai. Albatta sakht zaroorat ke
tehat Fitre ki raqam dena bhi jaaiz hai.

Is ko misaal se is tarah samajh len ke aaj kal Fuqaraa aur
Masaakeen jinhein ghalle ki zaroorat nahi hoti woh hum se
ghalla to le lete hain magar use bech kar qeemat haasil karte hain
aur fir qeemat se apni zaroorat ki cheezein khreedte hain.

Aise halaat mein bajaye is ke ke miskeen ko ghalla bechne ki
mashaqqat mile aur ghalle ki kum qeemat haasil karni pade
hum khud un ki taraf se wakeel ban kar ghalle ki qeemat ada kar dein.

Wazeh rahe ki yeh sirf zaroorat ke waqt jaaiz hai albatta behtar aur
afzal sunnat ki pairwi hai jo ke khaane peene ki cheezon se Fitra ada karna hai.

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